Testicular swellings are a very common reason for presentation to a urologist. Men are well-informed about the occurrence of testicular cancer and will present for reassurance and diagnosis. Cancer remains a relatively uncommon cause of scrotal pathology and simple clinical assessment and ultrasound scanning can rapidly reassure the majority of men. Advice is also often necessary regarding testicular self-examination.
If you find a lump that is not within the skin of the scrotum you should seek advice. The vast majority of lumps are benign (non-cancerous) in nature and clinical examination and a simple ultrasound scan will distinguish the nature of any lump. Benign lumps only very rarely need to be removed surgically if they cause discomfort or are sufficiently large to cause cosmetic embarrassment.
Testicular cancer is one of the few cancers which is commoner in young men. Its peak incidence is in men between the ages of 20 and 40 years, although it can be seen outwith this range. Men who have previously had an undescended testicle (even if they have had surgery to correct the proble), along with those who have a smaller or previously damaged testicle on the other side, are also at higher risk.